786
مجله اینترنتی
زنان و خانواده
کانال دخت ایران

      • According to the World Bank ۶۴ % of ۸۶۷ million adults who can not read today are women, and the majority of ۱۱۳ million children aged ۶ to ۱۱ years out of schools are girls. Inadequate access of women to credit, land ownership care and training new technologies as well as fewer employments adversely affect human capital development.

        During the ۱۹۰۰’s, industrialized world saw booming population growth and the rise of radical ideologies. On this time of great expansion and turbulence, the International Women’s Day was born. Women’s oppression and inequality was spurring women to become more vocal and begin active campaigning for change.  ۱۵ ۰۰۰ women marched through New York City in ۱۹۰۸ demanding shorter work hours, better pay, and voting rights


        In ۱۹۱۰, Clara Zetkin a German journalist director of the “Die Gleichheit”(Equality magazine) proposed during the ۲nd International Conference, a gathering of socialist women of more than ۱۷ countries, that an annual day for women who had fought to achieve the right to vote be celebrated


        The ۸th of March represents a revolutionary date. It took many manifestations of women for more than a decade and the end of WWII to finally be admitted as the International Women’s Day in ۱۹۴۵. This day was later formalized by the United Nations in ۱۹۷۷


        But the roots of this day and its existence in the ۲۰th century Europe and the United States comes from a long historical battle for women to reach civil, social and professional  equality with men


        “Never before had women appeared to be so powerful or so sexually liberated”; Goncourt brothers


        The ۱۸th century Europe was in many respects a good time to be a woman (for the female elite at least). Brilliant society women wielded immense influence in Parisian salons and personalities such as Madame de Pompadour and Madame de Barry were some of the independent women who not only had financial power but were also political motivators


        Morality at the time was diminished and many women of the upper French class practiced sexual infidelity the same as men of the ۱۸th century did. Despite this “freedom” there was a lingering anti-woman prejudice which remained strong and the unconventional behavior of women made it even stronger.  A new born baby, if a girl, was not good news at that time and material love was not to be wasted on girls. Usually admitted as nurse, governess or dispatched o a convent school, girls were quick to be married off to a chosen husband by the family.


        There was clearly the “second sex” inferiority which continues till today and shapes the roots of the modern feminist ideology. This attitude itself was inherited from the misogynist tradition of ancient and medieval times. Occasionally women voiced their dissent through the fifteenth till seventeenth century and even scientific opinion reinforced assumptions about women inferiority, especially concerning the female anatomy and sexual drive

        Plato’s theory of the “wondering womb” (idea that the womb “wondered”  when not sufficiently activated by sexual intercourse and reproduction, thus giving rights to disturbed behavior and ‘hysteria’) was a common belief. Eve was seen as a punishment to Adam. The ideal woman for both Catholic and Protestant authorities was a pious submissive spouse who accepted her husband’s authority without question and spent the greater part of her time praying.  The Jesuits believe that a women’s foremost duty is to be well informed about religion. Worldly pleasures such as dancing should be shunned in favor of domestic cares


        In the eighteenth century, Enlightenment thinkers addressed the question of women and tried to explain sexual differences. But up today the intellectuals of the modern world can still not justify the differences that continue to persist in the most developed countries around the world. Those countries which claim equality of the genders and are the givers of lessons to the less developed nations have to take governmental and social measures to reduce the distance that persists between the male and females of their societies


        These challenges existed in ۱۹۱۰ when the idea of an “International Women’s Day” set the pace of what was at first a socialist initiative, displacing millions of women in rallies across Europe and Russia. On the ۸ of March ۱۹۷۰, in St. Petersburg Russia, factory workers demonstrate to demand bread and the return of their husbands left for the war front. Four years later, Lenin declares March ۸th, Women’s Day


        Although the events in Russia were the instigator of this vast movement, but the Europeans were marked by the French Feminist movement which gave the International Women’s day the voice which made it heard all across the western world. Recognized as the leading social and political reactionary movement, the French socialist and communist parties organized their actions to speak out against the inequalities that shape their society still today


        On April ۱۹۴۵, during the municipal elections the French women vote for the first time. In ۱۹۴۶, ۴۷ percent of the women voted in favor of General de Gaulle showing a conservative moderate vote which was the base of women movement in France. Officially on the ۸ March ۱۹۸۲ France also recognizes this day. This political reaction infringes the social expectations.
        A Ministry of Women’s Rights is designed by the Socialist government to glorify, upgrade, or just remember the role of women in French society. A presidential speech exhibition “۶۰ women in the history of feminism” against misogyny was the first celebration of women’s day in France.  ۲۰ ۰۰۰ women gather  with the UFF (Union des Femmes Françaises) at the famous Place de la Republique,  a symbolic gesture to conquer the rights of French  women. Yvette Roudy, then socialist Minister of Women’s Rights, declares “there is more discrimination and more struggles over claims, because the behaviors have become equal and all citizens can exercise their full rights

        …”     
        But today even in France, despite all these efforts inequalities exist. Uneven pay for the same jobs, minimum presence of women at levels of high rank decision making and family problems which have added to the security of women in France continue to be the key themes of what the feminist movements continue to debate and fight for. The high level of abortions and divorces which force the French women to endure the pains of submissiveness can be seen by some as a sign of “independence and freedom”, but the role of women has become more difficult. They have to act like men from inside and look like women on the outside and they still need to prove their competence and motivations despite the motherhood they are still expected to have and their relation to the male counterparts


        Traditionally groups and associations of women activists prepare each year, on International Women’s Day, demonstrations around the world to celebrate the victories and achievements, to voice their claims in order to improve the situation of women. Gender equality is a key factor included in the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations. Deficiencies still remain in terms of funding and resources given to the empowerment of women, one of the central themes of International Women’s Day which are still to be dealt with, despite the century old movement.


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