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مجله اینترنتی
زنان و خانواده
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      • Austria and Germany celebrate March ۸th along with international community as their Women’s day. The first IWD was observed on ۲۸ February ۱۹۰۹ in the United States following a declaration by the Socialist Party of America. Among other relevant historic events, it came to commemorate the ۱۹۱۱ Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. The idea of having an international women’s day was first put forward at the turn of the ۲۰th century amid rapid world industrialization and economic expansion that led to protests over working conditions. By urban legend, women from clothing and textile factories staged one such protest on ۸ March ۱۸۵۷ in New York City. The garment workers were protesting against very poor working conditions and low wages. The protesters were attacked and dispersed by police. These women established their first labor union in the same month two years later.

        More protests followed on ۸ March in subsequent years, most notably in ۱۹۰۸ when ۱۵,۰۰۰ women marched through New York City demanding shorter hours, better pay and voting rights. In ۱۹۱۰ the first international women’s conference was held in Copenhagen (in the labour-movement building located at Jagtvej ۶۹, which until recently housed Ungdomshuset) by the Second International and an International Women’s Day was established, which was submitted by the important German Socialist Clara Zetkin, although no date was specified. The following year, IWD was marked by over a million people in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland. However, soon thereafter, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City killed over ۱۴۰ garment workers. A lack of safety measures was blamed for the high death toll. Furthermore, on the eve of World War I, women across Europe held peace rallies on ۸ March ۱۹۱۳. In the West, International Women’s Day was commemorated during the ۱۹۱۰s and ۱۹۲۰s, but dwindled. It was revived by the rise of feminism in the ۱۹۶۰s. Demonstrations marking International Women’s Day in Russia proved to be the first stage of the Russian Revolution of ۱۹۱۷.


        In ۱۹۷۵, which had been designated as International Women’s Year, the United Nations gave official resolutions and began sponsoring International Women’s Day. Austria also officially recognized this occasion on the same year.

        Mother’s day is celebrated on a different day from the International Women’s Day in Austria. In fact, different countries celebrate Mother’s Day on various days of the year because the day has a number of different origins. One school of thought claims this day emerged from a custom of mother worship in ancient Greece, which kept a festival to Cybele, a great mother of Greek gods. This festival was held around the Vernal Equinox around Asia Minor and eventually in Rome itself from the Ides of March (۱۵ March) to ۱۸ March.
        The ancient Romans also had another holiday, Matronalia, which was dedicated to Juno, though mothers were usually given gifts on this day. In Austria, ۲۰۰۹ Mother’s day will be celebrated on ۱۰ May.

        Various initiatives and various foundations are active on this day - on issue of all sorts, important to women including health. The forthcoming for Austria is still not announced
         


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